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History of Ukraine
From prehistoric times, migration and settlement patterns in the territories of present-day Ukraine varied fundamentally along the lines of three geographic zones. The Black Sea coast was for centuries in the sphere of the contemporary Mediterranean maritime powers. The open steppe, funneling from the east across southern Ukraine and toward the mouth of the Danube River, formed a natural gateway to Europe for successive waves of nomadic horsemen from Central Asia. And the mixed forest-steppe and forest belt of north-central and western Ukraine supported an agricultural population (most notably the Trypillya culture of the mid-5th to 3rd millennia BCE), linked by waterways to northern and central Europe. The marshlands of these zones were frequent areas of both military conflict and cultural transmission.
Beginning in the 7th–6th centuries BCE, numerous Greek colonies were founded on the northern coast of the Black Sea, on the Crimean Peninsula, and along the Sea of Azov; these Hellenic outposts later came under the hegemony of the Roman Empire (see ancient Greek civilization; ancient Rome). During the 1st millennium BCE the steppe hinterland was occupied successively by the Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians. These peoples, all of Iranian stock, maintained commercial and cultural relations with the Greek colonies.
A period of great migrations began with the descent of the Goths from the Baltic region into Ukraine about 200 CE. They displaced the Sarmatians, but their own power was broken about 375 by the invading Huns from the east, who were followed in the 5th–6th centuries by the Bulgars and Avars. Between the 7th and 9th centuries, the Ukrainian steppe formed part of the Turkic Khazar mercantile empire, which was centred on the lower Volga River. Khazar control of the steppe was breached in the late 9th century by the Magyars (Hungarians). The Pechenegs, who followed, dominated much of southern Ukraine in the 10th and 11th centuries, and they were in turn succeeded by the Polovtsians (Cumans). Throughout this period of nomadic invasions, only a few of the Greek settlements on the Crimean Peninsula, notably Chersonesus (see Tauric Chersonese), maintained a precarious existence, relying on the support of the Byzantine Empire.
Use the Salam greeting when meeting a Muslim. Greet a Muslim as they would greet one another.
Use the phrase “As-Salam-u-Alaikum” (“Peace be unto you”).
This is pronounced “as-saa-laam-muu-ah-lay-kum.”
People usually place their right hand over their heart when they speak, to show respect and sincerity in the greeting. Greetings are usually prolonged as each person enquires about the other.
Do not expect the Salam greeting from a Muslim. Traditionally, the Salam greeting is reserved for those of the Muslim faith, so if you are not Muslim, you might not receive this greeting.
- Some current Islamic scholars believe that, in the interest of global peace and understanding, it is permitted to initiate the Salam greeting with non-Muslims.
- If you do receive the Salam greeting, respond with “wa-Alaikumussalam wa-Rahmatullah.”
- The pronunciation is “waa-alie-kum-us-salam waa-rah-ma-tull-la”
- The meaning is “May the peace, mercy, and blessings of Allah be upon you.”XResearch sourcehttp://en.islamway.net/article/13263/assalam-alaikum-the-islamic-greeting
- The longer response is “waa-alai-kum-us-salam-wa-rahma-tall-ahi-wa-ba-ra-ka-tu”.
Expect a Muslim to return the Salam greeting. If greeted with the Salam greeting, a Muslim will respond to a non-Muslim with the return greeting (“wa-Alaikumussalam wa-Rahmatullah”).
- It is obligatory for a Muslim to return the Salam greeting, regardless of the religion of the other person. To refuse this is against their religion.
- According to the Qu’ran (Muslim holy text), the Salam greeting has been mandatory since the creation of Adam and is commanded by Allah.
- Some Muslims may only return your greeting with “wa alaikum”. If that’s the case, It’s their religious matter and has to do with the historic setting of Medina(Holy city of Muslims).It’s narrated that in Prophet Muhammad’s PBUH time some non-Muslims greeted Muslims with “assam o alaikum (destruction be upon you); a close Arabic rhyme with salam “, then they returned the greeting with “wa alaikum”. The practice is still in use today.
Shake hands with male Muslims if you are male. It is common for Muslim men to shake hands.
- There is generally no prohibition against men shaking hands with other men.
- The exception is some Shia Muslims prohibit shaking hands with any non-Muslims.
- Do not be offended if a Muslim declines to shake your hand. It isn’t a personal affront but a reflection of their religious beliefs.
Do not shake hands with female Muslims if you are male. While there is debate on the appropriateness of female Muslims shaking hands with men, you should not do so unless she initiates the contact.
- Many Muslim women do not shake hands with men due to religious prohibitions against a woman being touched by a man outside of her family.
- Some Muslim women, especially those working in corporate environments, might shake hands with men.
- Some Muslim women wear gloves in order to get around the prohibition against touching a male who is not a relative.
Do not shake hands with male Muslims if you are female. Regardless of your religious beliefs, you should not reach for a male Muslim’s hand unless he initiates the contact.
- Pious Muslim men do not touch women outside of their family (wives, daughters, mothers, etc.)
- Refraining from touching a woman she is not related to is considered a gesture of respect and modesty.